4 - MONTANE MIXED CONIFER FOREST This habitat is found adjacent to Westside Lowlands Conifer-Hardwood Forest, Eastside Mixed Conifer Forests, or Southwest Oregon Mixed Conifer-Hardwood Forest at its lower elevation limits and to Subalpine Parkland at its upper elevation limits. Inclusions of Montane Forested Wetlands, Westside Riparian/Wetlands, and less commonly Open Water or Herbaceous Wetlands occur within the matrix of montane forest habitat. The typical land use is forestry or recreation. Most of this type is found on public lands managed for timber values and much of it has been harvested in a dispersed-patch pattern.
5 - EASTSIDE (INTERIOR) MIXED CONIFER FOREST This habitat makes up most of the continuous montane forests of the inland Pacific Northwest. It is located between the subalpine portions of the Montane Mixed Conifer Forest habitat in eastern Oregon and Washington and lower tree line ponderosa pine and Eastside Oak Forests and Woodlands.
6 - LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST AND WOODLANDS This habitat appears within Montane Mixed Conifer Forest east of the Cascade crest and the cooler Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest habitats. Most pumice soil lodgepole pine habitat is intermixed with Ponderosa Pine Woodland and Forest Habitats and is located between Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest habitat and either Western Juniper Woodland or Shrubsteppe habitat.
7 - PONDEROSA PINE AND EASTSIDE WHITE OAK FOREST AND WOODLANDS This woodland habitat typifies the lower treeline zone forming transitions with Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest and Western Juniper and Mountain Mahogany Woodland, Shrubsteppe, Eastside Grassland, or Agriculture habitats. Douglas-fir-ponderosa pine woodlands are found near or within the Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest habitat. Oregon oak woodlands appear in the driest most restricted landscapes in transition to Eastside Grassland or Shrubsteppe.
8 - UPLAND ASPEN FOREST Aspen forms a "subalpine belt" above the Western Juniper and Mountain Mahogany Woodland habitat and below Montane Shrubsteppe Habitat on Steens Mountain in southern Oregon. It can occur in seral stands in the lower Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest and Ponderosa Pine-White Oak Woodland habitats. Primary land use is livestock grazing.
9 - SUBALPINE PARKLANDS The Subalpine Parkland habitat lies above the Mixed Montane Conifer Forest or Lodgepole Pine Forest habitat and below the Alpine Grassland and Shrubland habitat. Associated wetlands in subalpine parklands extend up a short distance into the alpine zone. Primary land use is recreation, watershed protection, and grazing.
10 - ALPINE GRASSLANDS AND SHRUBLANDS This habitat always occurs above upper treeline in the mountains or a short distance below it (grasslands in the subalpine parkland zone). Typically, it occurs adjacent to, or in a mosaic with, Subalpine Parkland. Occasionally, it may grade quickly from this habitat down into Montane Mixed Conifer Forest without intervening Subalpine Parkland. In southeastern Oregon, this habitat occurs adjacent to and above Upland Aspen Forest and Shrubsteppe habitats. Small areas of Open Water, Herbaceous Wetlands, and Subalpine Parkland habitats sometimes occur within a matrix of this habitat. Cliffs, talus, and other barren areas are common features within or adjacent to this habitat. Land use is primarily recreation, but in some areas east of the Cascade Crest, it is grazing, especially by sheep.
15 - EASTSIDE (INTERIOR) GRASSLANDS Eastside grassland habitats appear well below and in a matrix with lower treeline ponderosa pine and eastside oak forests and woodlands or western juniper and mountain mahogany woodlands. It can also be part of the lower elevation forest matrix. Most grassland habitat occurs in 2 distinct large landscapes: plateau and canyon grasslands. Several rivers flow through narrow basalt canyons below plateaus supporting prairies or shrubsteppe. The canyons can be some 2,132 ft (650 m) deep below the plateau. The plateau above is composed of gentle slopes with deep silty loess soils in an expansive rolling dune-like landscape. Grasslands may occur in a patchwork with shallow soil scablands or within biscuit scablands or mounded topography. Naturally occurring grasslands are beyond the range of bitterbrush and sagebrush species. This habitat exists today in the shrubsteppe landscape where grasslands are created by brush removal, chaining or spraying, or by fire. Agricultural uses and introduced perennial on abandoned or planted fields are common throughout the current distribution of eastside grassland habitats.
16 - SHRUB-STEPPE Shrubsteppe habitat defines a biogeographic region and is the major vegetation on average sites in the Columbia Plateau, usually below Ponderosa Pine and Oregon White Oak Woodland, and Western Juniper and Mountain Mahogany Woodland habitats. It forms mosaic landscapes with these woodland habitats and Eastside Grassland, Dwarf-shrub Shrubsteppe, and Desert Playa and Salt Scrub habitats. Mountain sagebrush shrubsteppe occurs at high elevations occasionally within the dry Eastside Mixed Conifer and Montane Mixed Forest habitats. Shrubsteppe habitat can appear in large landscape patches. Livestock grazing is the primary land use in the shrubsteppe although much has been converted to irrigation or dry land agriculture. Large areas occur in military training areas and wildlife refuges.
19 - AGRICULTURE, PASTURE, AND MIXED ENVIRONS Agricultural habitat occurs within a matrix of other habitat types at low to mid-elevations, including Eastside grasslands, Shrubsteppe, Westside Lowlands Conifer-Deciduous Forest and other low to mid-elevation forest and woodland habitats. This habitat often dominates the landscape in flat or gently rolling terrain, on well-developed soils, broad river valleys, and areas with access to abundant irrigation water. Unlike other habitat types, agricultural habitat is often characterized by regular landscape patterns (squares, rectangles, and circles) and straight borders because of ownership boundaries and multiple crops within a region. Edges can be abrupt along the habitat borders within agricultural habitat and with other adjacent habitats.
20 - URBAN AND MIXED ENVIORNS Urban development occurs within or adjacent to nearly every habitat type in Oregon and Washington, and often replaces habitats that are valuable for wildlife. The highest urban densities normally occur in lower elevations along natural or human-made transportation corridors, such as rivers, railroad lines, coastlines, or interstate highways. These areas often contain good soils with little or no slope and lush vegetation. Once level areas become crowded, growth continues along rivers or shores of lakes or oceans, and eventually up elevated sites with steep slopes or rocky outcrops. Because early settlers often modified the original landscape for agricultural purposes, many of our urban areas are surrounded by agricultural and grazing lands.
21 - LAKES, RIVERS, PONDS, AND RESERVOIRS This habitat occurs throughout Washington and Oregon. Ponds, lakes, and reservoirs are adjacent to Herbaceous Wetlands, while rivers and streams adjoin the Westside Riparian, Eastside Riparian and Bays and Estuaries.
22 - HERBACEOUS WETLANDS Herbaceous wetlands are found in all terrestrial habitats except Subalpine Parkland, Alpine Grassland, and Shrubland habitats. Herbaceous wetlands commonly form a pattern with Westside and Eastside Riparian/Wetland and Montane Coniferous Wetlands habitats along stream corridors. These marshes and wetlands also occur in closed basins in a mosaic with open water by lakeshores or ponds. Extensive deflation plain wetlands have developed between Coastal Duns and Beaches habitat and the Pacific Ocean. Herbaceous wetlands are found in a mosaic with alkali grasslands in the Desert Playa and Salt Scrub habitat.
24 - MONTANE CONIFEROUS WETLANDS This habitat occurs along stream courses or as patches, typically small, within a matrix of Montane Mixed Conifer Forest, or less commonly, Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest or Lodgepole Pine Forest and Woodlands. It also can occur adjacent to other wetland habitats: Eastside Riparian-Wetlands, Westside Riparian-Wetlands, or Herbaceous Wetlands. The primary land uses are forestry and watershed protection.
25 - EASTSIDE (INTERIOR) RIPARIAN WETLANDS Eastside riparian habitats occur along streams, seeps, and lakes within the Eastside Mixed Conifer Forest, Ponderosa Pine and Oregon White Oak Forest and Woodland, Western Juniper and Mountain Mahogany Woodland, and part of the Shrubsteppe habitat. This habitat may be described as occupying warm, montane and adjacent valley and plain riparian environments.
98 - Rock/Talus/Sandbars etc..
99 - Glaciers/Snowfields